Category: Diagnostic Reference Sheets

General Information Xanthelasma is a rare condition characterized by soft yellow plaques involving the eyelids of patients. Fifty percent of patients seen with the disorder have high amounts of lipids in their blood. Females seem to develop the condition more frequently then males. The elevated plaques have well-defined borders and can range anywhere from 2-30 […]

General Information Vitiligo is a condition resulting from loss of pigmentation in the skin, producing white patches. The affected areas commonly seen are the face, lips, hands, arms, legs and genital areas. About half the individuals that develop vitiligo will develop it before they are 20 years old. Melanin is the pigment that determines the […]

General Information Verruca vulgaris, also known as common warts, is a benign skin growth caused by a viral infection in the skin. The human papilloma virus (HPV), which is a double-stranded, circular, supercoiled DNA virus enclosed in an icosahedral capsid and comprising 72 capsomers, causes the warts. There are more then 70 genotypes of HPV, […]

General Information Vasculitis is a term used for inflammation of blood vessels in the skin. The inflammation is thought to arise through one or more of three main mechanisms; Direct injury to the vessel wall by virus or bacteria; Indirect injury by activation of antibodies; Indirect injury through activation of complement. Medications are known to […]

General Information Urticaria is the medical term for hives. Hives are very common skin condition with around 10-20 percent of the population having at least one episode in their lifetime. Urticaria is characterized by pruritic, raised, palpable lesions, which can be linear, circular, or serpiginous. The lesions can occur on any part of the body. […]

General Information Varicella, commonly known as Chickenpox, is an infectious disease caused by the varicella zoster virus. Varicella is a common virus among children under the age of 12, but can also affect adults. An intense pruritic rash that progresses rapidly from macules to papules to vesicular lesions before crusting at about six days and […]

General Information Urticaria Pigmentosa is an uncommon disease characterized by lesions that produce intense itching (pruritus). Urticaria Pigmentosa is the most common form of mastocytosis disorder, a disorder characterized by mast cell proliferation and accumulation within various organs, most commonly the skin. Lesions appear as oval or round, reddish-brown, macules, papules or plaques ranging from […]

General Information Tinea is a fungal infection that occurs on the surface of the skin. The agents that cause the fungus are dermatophytes (means skin fungi), which invade the dead keratin of the skin, hair and nails. Humidity and moisture provides a favorable environment for the establishment of fungal infections. Clinically, tinea infections are classified […]

General Information Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies are produced by the body that attack cells and various organs causing dysfunction and damage. Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system and are directed against one or more of the individual’s own proteins. The cause is not understood, but […]

General Information Stasis Dermatitis is a skin condition caused by fluid building up under the skin, due to poor circulation in the veins (venous insufficiency). The poor circulation will eventually lead to ulcers in the skin. Patients typically present with an insidious onset of pruritus affecting one or both lower extremities. Reddish-brown skin discoloration is […]